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Division of Entomology & Nematology

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The research on plant protection aspects was started in 1970’s in the division of Entomology and Nematology, headed by Late Dr. V.G. Prasad. The division laid foundation for biocontrol work, which started at IIHR as an AICR Project in 1977 and and latler was made independent as Project Directorate f Biological Control (presently, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, NBAII).  The pesticide residues work in which safe waiting periods were fixed for many pesticides for both fruits and vegetables was also initiated then.  From its inception, the Division has been the leader in IPM of fruits and vegetables. Work on pest management of ornamental and medicinal crops was initiated in 1980.

Mandate

  1. To carry out basic and strategic research for the management of pests of Horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic crops).
  2. To Develop Integrated Pest Management packages and Integrated Nematode Management packages by emphasizing ecofriendly pest management.
  3. To conduct teaching and training programmes for development of human resources in pest management.
  4. To develop innovative products and commercialize the same through ITMU and public and private partnership (PPP).

Thrust areas (12th FYP)

  1. Semiochemical based pest management in horticultural crops.
  2. Development of commercially viable formulations of  biopesticides and botanicals for insect and nematode pests.
  3. Management of borer pests in Horticultural crops.
  4. Insect vector-Virus interaction studies
  5. Molecular systematics and basic physiological studies of sucking pests in Horticultural crops
  6. Insecticide Resistance Management
  7. Pest Management under protected conditions.
  8. Studies on effect of climate change on horticultural crop pests

Significant achievements: 

The division has six different laboratories focusing on different aspects of horticultural crop pest management including nematodes in major fruits, vegetables, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic crops. The division has been conducting several research projects sponsored by ICAR and other central government departments, apart from internationally funded projects. They include ICAR ad-hoc, AICRP’s, NATP, DBT, DST, NABARD, APEDA sponsored projects etc. This division was also involved in the SAVERNET phase I and II in collaboration with AVRDC, Taiwan; USDA funded project on IPM in vegetable crops; PL-480 project on location of source of resistance to fruit fly in cucurbits and an international India-UK (DFID)-Fruit fly project.

A scientific society entitled “Association for Advancement for Pest Management of Horticultural Ecosystems” (AAPMHE) was started in July, 1994 with an aim to promote the cause of Plant Protection in Horticulture. AAPMHE has been publishing a journal entitled “Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems” bi-annually.

The division has come out with several technologies for the management of insect and nematode pests on various horticultural crops, some of them are listed below. 

  1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  in cabbage
  2. IPM  in Tomato
  3. IPM of cucurbit fruit fly
  4. IPM of mango fruit fly
  5. IPM of grape thrips
  6. IPM of  sapota seed borer
  7. IPM of stone weevil in mango
  8. Biocontrol technology for the management of mealy bugs on fruit crops
  9. Biological control of exotic spiraling whitefly on horticultural crops
  10. Isolation and use of Metarhizium anisopliae against mango hoppers.
  11. Microbial control of lepidopterous pests of cabbage and tomato fruit borer.
  12. Development and use of  botanicals (neem and pongamia soaps) for the management of vegetable crop pests
  13. Pest management in capsicum and tomato under polyhouse conditions.
  14. Integrated Pest Management in ornamental crops (rose, gerbera, chrysanthemum and jasmine).
  15. Development of organic modules for the management of pests of rose and gerbera under Polyhouse
  16. Use of biopesticides for the management of nematodes in fruits, vegetables and ornamental crops.
  17. Management of vertebrate pests (Grapes)

Technologies commercialised

  1. Methyl eugenol pheromone traps for mango fruit fly.
  2. Cuelure pheromone traps for cucurbit fruit fly
  3. Sealer cum Healer for the management of stem borers
  4. Hot water treatment for fruit fly management
  5. Neem soap and Pongamia soap for insect pest management in vegetables
  6. Trichoderma viride – 1.5% W.P for nematode management
  7. Trichoderma harzianum – 1% W.P,  Paecilomyces lilacinus – 1% W.P etc.   for some fungal and nematode disease management

 

List of varieties/germplasm collections resistant/least susceptible to insect and mite pests

Crop

Pests

Resistant/ tolerant/ Least Susceptible varieties genotypes

Fruit crops

Mango

Hoppers

Lazzat Bhakshi, Baneshan, Chinnarasam and Khader

Fruit fly

EC95862, Langra (least susceptible)

Banana

Thrips

Vennon, Klue taperod and Peyan

Rhizome weevil

Locatan,Chakkia,Kostha,Bontha,Malaimonthan,Peapeykunnan,

Jamini

Lacewing bug

Jurmony, Thattilakuman, Malakali, Krishna Vazhai and Kali

Citrus

Leaf miner

Rubidoux,Tomari,Citrumelo,Savage,Morton, Troyer and Carrizo

psyllids

Cleopatra, Gal , Kagzi lime ,Karna kata and Rubidoux

Pomegranate

Fruit borer

Debano Bosco and Jyoti

Guava

Fruit fly

Red flesh, Pink flesh and Strawberry

Fruit borer

Dudhkhaja, Arka kiran, Lalit and Hisar Surkha

Sapota

Fruit fly

PKM-1,PKM-2,DHS-1,DHS-2,Bhuripatti and Pilipatta

Custard Apple

Fruit fly

Red Sitaphal, Pink Mammoth

Aonla

Fruit borer

NA-10, Chakaiya

Jackfruit

Shoot and Fruit borer

G-1, G-2, G-9 and ACC G-65

Vegetable crops

Tomato

Fruit borer

T 27 and T 32

whitefly

Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabaratum, Solanum pennellii,Avinash-1, Avinash-2,Mruthyunjaya-1, Mruthyunjaya-2 and Mruthyunjaya-3

Spider mite

PI 251303, Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabaratum and Lycopersicon hirsutum f. typicum

Brinjal

Fruit and shoot borer

PPC-2, Aushey, H165, Thorn, Pendy, Punjab Barsati, pusa purple cluster, Arka Kusmak, Doli-5, H 407, HLB-12, JC-1, GBH-1,JC-2, Pant Brinjal Hybrid 1 and PPI 1

Leafhopper

S-34 and S-258

Lady bird beetle

Solanum mammosum and Solanum viarum

Aphids

Annamalai

Chilli

Thrips and Mites

NT46A (T), Punjab Lal, Pusa Jwala, Phule Jyoti, Arka Meghana  and Pant C 1

Capsicum

Whitefly

California wounder Yolo wounder and Koral

Thrips and Mites

Pusa Jwala and Phule Jyoti

Onion

Thrips

TNAU hybrids CO2, CO3 and CO4

Cowpea

Leafhopper

TVu 123 and Vita 3

Aphids

TVu 310, TVu 801, TVu 408 and 3000

Thrips

TVu 1509 and TVx 3236

Pod borer

TVu 946,TVu 1896 ,AG,H51-1 and 2AK

French bean

Bean fly

E30 and E34

Okra

Leafhoppers

Punjab Padmini

Fruit borer

AE-22, AE-52, Wonderful Pink, Pusa A-4,  Pusa Sawani, Parkins long green, Karnal Special, Velvet, IIHR-4, Siswal-1 and 2

Whitefly

Arka Anamika,  Hisar unnnat, Varsha Uphar ,P 7 Pusa Sawani, Pusa A 4, Arka Abhay, , Hisar Naveen, HBH-142 (F1 hybrid), Gujarat Anand Okra-5, CO 1, CO 3, COBhH 1, Azad Bhindi -1 and Azad Bhindi-3

Aphid

Pusa A 4 and Gujarat Anand Okra-5

Muskmelon

Fruitfly

MM 102-1, IHR-19, 22, 32, 40and Karda

Red pumpkin beetle

Casaba

Watermelon

Red pumpkin beetle

72 and  98

Aphids

PI 299563

Spider Mite

Congo, Giza 1, Durgapur Kesar (RW 187-2) Mithila, Suganthi, Kiran, Vishal and Simran

Ber

Resistant to fruit borer

Banarsi Pewandi, Ajmeri, Gola, Gurgaon and Jhajjar

Tolerant to fruit fly

Umran and Tikkadi

Pumpkin

Fruitfly

Arka Suryamukhi, IHR-32, IHR79-2 and IHR 83

 

Red pumpkin beetle

596-2 and 613

Ornamental crops

Chrysanthemum

Thrips

‘Swetha Sringar’, ‘Varthur’, ‘Lemon’, ‘Co-2’, ‘Mother Teresa’

Source:

  • Reddy PP, Verghese A and Kumar NKK (2001). Integrated pest management in Horticultural Ecosystems. Capital publishing Company (India), NewDelhi.24-45p.
  • Palaniswamy S, Natarajan N, Sivasubramanian P, Karuppuchamy P and Douressamy S (2005). Recent advances in Host Plant Resistance. Proceedings of the National Training on Recent advances in Host Plant Resistance conducted from February 9-March 1,2005by the Centre of Advanced Studies in Entomology, TNAU, Coimbatore. 141-186 pp.

List  of  varieties &  hybrids tolerant / resistant to nematodes

 

Crop

Nematode

Resistant/ tolerant varieties/ hybrid lines

Fruit crops

Banana

Radopholus similis

Kadali, Pedalimoongil, Peykunnan, Ayiramkapoovan, Kunnan, Pisang Seribu, Tongat, Vennettu Kunnan, Anaikomban

Citrus

Tylenchulus semipenetrans

Trifoliate orange, Swingle Citrumello

Pratylenchus coffeae

Poncirus trifoliata

Microcitrus selections

Grapevine

Meloidogyne incognita

Black Champa, Dogridge, 1613, Salt Creek, Cardinal, Banquabad, Zinfundel, Kandharia, Kishmish Chorni, Redvine, Convert Large Black, Luglienga

Rotylenchulus reniformis

Dakshi, Joazbeli, Mukchilani

Papaya

R. reniformis

Solo, Washington

Passion

Fruit

M. incognita

Yellow, Kaveri

Vegetable crops

Tomato

Meloidogyne  spp.

Nematox, SL-120, NTR-1, SL-12, Patriot, VFN-8, VFN Bush, Piersol, Radiant, Nemared, Ronita, Anahu, Bresch, Helani, Campbell-25, Punuui, Arka Vardan, Pelican, Hawaii-7746, Hawaii-7747, Hisar Lalit, Punjab NR-7

R. reniformis

Healani, VFN Bush, Radiant, SL-120, Patriot, Kalyanpur  selection I, Kalyanpur  selection III, Petropride, Peto 95, Peto 108, Nema 1400, ACE 55

Brinjal

M. incognita

Giant of Banaras, Black Beauty, Gola,

SM – 67, Gachha Baigun, Syamala (MR)

Chilli

M. javanica

579, CAP-63, Pusa Jwala

Wonder Hot, Teja, LCA 206

M. incognita

IIHR 4561, IIHR 3448, IIHR 3024, IIHR 3575 (Immune)

R. reniformis

Sweet Bell, California Wonder

Capsicum

R. reniformis

Sweet Ball, California Wonder

Onion

R. reniformis

Evergreen

Cowpea

M. incognita

Barsati Mutant, Iron, Clay, Chinese Red, Groit, New Era, Missisipi Purple, Missisipi Silver, New Selection, Viktor K 798, Broweye 7, Brabham, Moneetta, Catjang, Columbia, Gujarat Cowpea 1 (GAU-1), C-152, 92-1-B, IC 9642-B, TVU 2430-P

Heterodera cajani

CO 6

French bean

M. incognita

Banat, Blue Lake Stringless, Bountiful Flat, Brown Beauty, Cambridge Countess, Gallaroy, Kenya-3, Pinto W5-114, Seafarer, Suttan’s Masterpiece

Okra

M. incognita

Parbhani Kranthi (MR)

 

 

IIHR 359, IIHR 387, 10-11-875 (Highly Resistant); IIHR 357, IIHR 361, IIHR 362, IIHR 363, IIHR 364, 11-1-50 (Moderately Resistant)

Muskmelon

M.incognita

Scarsol

 

M. javanica

S-445

Watermelon

M. incognita

Shehjanpuri

Ridgegourd

M. incognita

Panipati, Meerut Special

Ash gourd

M. incognita

Jaipuri, Agra

Pumpkin

M. incognita

Jaipuri, Dasna

Ornamental crops

China aster

M. incognita

Shashank-Resistant; Poornima-Mod. Resistant

Tuberose

M. incognita

Shringar-Resistant; Suvasini-Tolerant

 

IIHR -2, IIHR-4, Variegated, Shringar OP, Suarna rekha, GK-T-C4, Calcutta Double, Bidhan Jyothi (Tolerant)

Gladiolus

M. incognita

Arka-Amar, Arka Aayush, Arka Kesar, Hybrid12, Kumkum, 86-32-11, 84-6-13, 84-4-9, GC (Tolerant)

Crossandra

M. incognita

Arka Shreya, Mutant, Green (Resistant)

Medicinal crops

Coleus

M. incognita

Hy06-10 (Moderately resistant)

Source:

  • Reddy PP (2007). Bio-intensive integrated nematode management in horticultural ecosystems: Principles and practices. Scientific publishers (India), Jodhpur, 308p;
  • ICAR - IIHR Annual Reports 2014-15, 15-16, 16-17

 


Dr.  M S Rao

Principal Scientist & I/c Head

Division of Entomology & Nematology

IIHR, Hessaraghatta Lake Post

Bangalore – 560 089.