Division of Fruit Crops


About us


The Division of fruit crops was started in 1968 to cater the research and development needs in tropical and subtropical fruits at national level. This division was headed by Dr.C.P.A.Iyer (1968, 1973-80 and 1991-94), Dr.K.L.Chada (1969-72), Dr.A.G.Purohit (1981-84), Dr.Rajendra Singh (1986-90), Dr.Shikhamani (1995-97), Dr.I.S.Yadav (1997-99), Dr.G.S.Prakash (2000-2008) and Dr.Chitraichelvan (2009-2014) and currently, Dr.M.R.Dinesh is heading the Division. This division is mainly working on the genetic improvement of fruit crops (Mango, Papaya, Grapes, Guava, Pomegranate, Custard apple, Fig, Jackfruit, Pummelo & Underutilized fruits) for improved productivity, quality and resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses by adopting the breeding techniques such as hybridization, mutation, backcross method, OP seedling selection raising of half sibs, distant hybridization and haploid breeding. On the production side, this division is working on the development and refinement of production technology of fruit crops through the High Density Planting (HDP), canopy architecture, crop regulation, intercropping systems and optimization of nutrients and water level for higher production and productivity. This division is also offering courses on breeding of fruit crops, advances in fruit breeding and national problems in fruit crops to the Post Graduate students of University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot and IARI, New Delhi.



The mandated crops for the Division are:


Mango, Papaya, Grapes, Guava, Pomegranate, Custard apple, Jamun, Sapota, Fig, Jackfruit, Pummelo & Underutilized fruits.




  • To carry out the basic, strategic and applied research for higher productivity, quality and utility of fruit crops in tropical agro-climatic zones of India.
  • To be the National Active Germplasm Sites (NAGS) for major fruit crops and their effective management
  • To conduct teaching and training programmes for development of human resources.
  • Transfer of technologies to the line department and study their impact.


Salient Achievements


Developed and released high yielding hybrids/varieties in Mango (4 no), Papaya (2 no), Guava (4 no), Grapes (8 no), Custard apple (1no), Pomegranate (1no) and lime (1no). Standardised the high density planting (HDP) and nutrient requirements for Banana, Mango, Papaya, Grapes and Pineapple.



 Thrust Areas


  • Breeding for yield, quality, and biotic and abiotic stresses.
  • High density planting (HDP), Canopy management and Stock-Scion interaction in tropical fruits.
  • Water productivity and nutrient dynamics in tropical fruits for higher production and productivity.
  • Intercropping in pre-bearing fruit crop based orchard systems.  




1. ‘Field Gene bank’ collections at present ;

Mango 667
Pomegranate 203
Grapes 72
Jackfruit 67
Guava 60
Jamun 50
Sapota 41
Papaya 32
Custard apple 26
Pummelo 25
Underutilized fruits 38



2. Mother plants field gene bank

The Division maintains mother plants as well as  Fruit Crop Nursery, which produces ‘true to type’ plant materials of the fruit crops viz., Custard apple var.Arka Sahan, mango varieties Alphonso, Banganapalli, Totapuri and Amrapali, guava varieties Arka Mridula, Arka Kiran and Arka Rashmi, sapota variety Cricket Ball and the seed production of the papaya varieties Arka Surya and Arka Prabhath. The total area of nursery compressing of mother block of Mango, Guava, Sapota, Annona and papaya seed production area is about 20 acres.


3. Research Laboratory (4 No)


4. Research field facility (Block 1, Block 2 and Block 9)


5. Farmers and Scientists Interaction meet







Dr M.R.Dinesh

Principal Scientist &  Head

Division of Fruit Crops

Hessaraghatta Lake Post

Bangalore – 560 089.


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Name Designation Email Id
Srinivas Murthy, B.N. Principal Scientist (Hort) bnsmurthy@iihr.ernet.in
Reju M. Kurian Principal Scientist rkurian@iihr.ernet.in
Manjunath, B.L Principal Scientist (Agronomy) manjunathbl@iihr.ernet.in
Sampath Kumar Pamu Principal Scientist pamus@iihr.ernet.in
Rekha, A. Principal Scientist arekha@iihr.ernet.in
Sakthivel, T. Principal Scientist sakthivel@iihr.ernet.in
Satisha, J. Principal Scientist satishaj@iihr.ernet.in
Vasugi, C. Scientist (SG) vasuc@iihr.ernet.in
Sankaran, M. Senior Scientist (Horticulture) kmsankaran@iihr.ernet.in
Awachare Chandrakant Madhav Scientist
Name Designation Email Id
Prakash, B Chief Technical Officer (Lab.)
Ravindra Kumar Senior Technical Officer (Lab.)

Sorry no data found.


Crop Improvement


The total collection in mango stands at 538. Evaluation of germplasm showed that the variety Sora had the maximum fruit weight (1166 g) followed by the variety Tenneru (945 g). It was found to be minimum in Kalakai (88 g). Screening of the 32 mango varieties for fruit fly showed that the varieties Bhuto Bombay and Virudhunagar when exposed to fruit fly under artificial conditions did not record any infestation. The varieties Gopal Bhog, Bhutto Bombay, Manipur, Manibhatta Appe and Virudhunagar did not show any stone weevil infestation.


Arka Udaya: It is a hybrid (Amrapali x  Arka Anmol) which possess the  semi vigorous growth , bunch bearing characteristics,  fruits medium sized (230-240g)  and oblong,  peel colour of  Arka Anmol with pulp characteristics of Amrapali,  firm pulp (77%) with  deep yellow  having high TSS(24°Brix), total carotenoids (13.55mg/100g) and has yield potential of 18-20t /ha with the spacing of 5x5M.





The total collection in guava stands at 76 including five species.



Arka Kiran: It is a hybrid (Kamsari X Purple Local) possesses the semi-vigorous plant habit. It bears the medium sized round shaped fruits ( 200-220g), Pulp deep pink in colour with Lycopene content of 5-7 mg/100 g,  high TSS (14-15 °Brix), medium soft seeds (7.0 kg/cm2 ). It has the yield potential of 35 to 40 t / ha.



Arka Rashmi: It is a hybrid (Kamsari X Purple Local) possess the semi-vigorous plant habit. It bears the medium sized round shaped fruits ( 200-215g), Pulp deep pink in colour with Lycopene content of 4.93 mg/100 g,  higher ascorbic acid (235.5 mg /100 g ),high TSS (12-14 °Brix), medium soft seeds (9.0 kg/cm2 ). It has the yield potential of 35 to 40 t / ha.




Germplasm of 33 Sapota accessions are being maintained in the field. An open pollinated seedling progeny of Cricket Ball (no.63) isolated has been multiplied by grafted and 20 grafts are planted in field for further evaluation.


Nine accessions of Jamun were collected from various sources like KRCC, Arabhavi (6 accessions), CISH, Lucknow (2 accessions) and one Konkan Bahadoli from Regional Fruit Research Station, Vengurle.

Underutilized fruits

At present, 42 accessions of underutilized fruits are being maintained. A total of 19 accessions in jackfruit and 9 in pummelo have been evaluated. The accession     G-65 continued to be superior in jackfruit. In pummelo, a pink pulped accession has also been found good with respect to quality.


At present 32 accessions including two species are being maintained. The evaluation of the intergeneric hybrid progenies for PRSV, a few progenies are showing tolerance in addition to good fruit quality.

Papaya-drought tolerance

 As pollen germination under stress is one of the indirect ways of assessing drought tolerance, different accessions of Carica papaya were evaluated by artificial pollen germination. Amongst the 32 accessions tried, V. cauliflora, Dwarf Lilly and CO6 recorded pollen germination over 50 per cent.



Two accessions of pomegranate have been introduced from Afghanistan one with acidic taste and the other with sweet and seedlings raised from them. Screening of nearly 500 progenies of Daru, Nana (Yellow) and Nana (Red) was taken up and found that Daru had highest per cent (51.41) of population resistant to BBP. Nearly 5000 seedlings of Daru, Nana and OPs of Bhagwa were raised for evaluation against BBP. Two hybrids of DF x N with less spines were identified as a source of breeding lines.


Sixty six accessions were added. Three hundred forty four putative disease tolerant hybrids with various degree of tolerance to different fungal diseases (based on one season of screening/field survival) are being furthered for rigorous screening.

Passion fruit

A total of twelve genotypes are being maintained.

Production Technology

Canopy architecture (Mango, grapes and fig)

In the field trial involving planting densities of 1111 (3m x 3m), 400 (5m x 5m) and 178 (7.5m x 7.5m) ‘Alphonso’ trees / ha. on ‘Vellaikulumban’ and ‘Olour’ rootstocks with or without the application of paclobutrazol, the vegetative growth parameters were lower for paclobutrazol applied trees and those on Vellaikulamban rootstock. Flowering was more at wider spacing and on trees that received paclobutrazol treatments, the trend being more pronounced with Olour rootstock. The highest fruit yield of 14.63 t / ha during the twelfth orchard year was obtained with 3m X 3m spacing using Olour rootstock and 1.25 g paclobutrazol / tree compared control at 10m X 10m spacing (100 trees / ha) on random Totapuri rootstock without paclobutrazol yielding only 4.64 t/ha. The treatment combinations did not significantly affect fruit quality, though acidity tended to be more for closer spacing. Paclobutrazol residues in surface soil (0-15 cm) samples collected from under mango tree canopy at the time of fruit harvest were in the range of 0.044 to 1.145 mg / kg for the lower application rate (0.125 g / tree / year of age) and in the range of 0.096 – 1.88 mg / kg for the higher application rate (0.25 g / tree / year of age), but fruit samples from all the treatment combinations were free of any paclobutrazol residues.