Sprinkler irrigation is not necessary for open cultivation of flowers. Over head sprinkler are used for misting in polyhouses, for propagation of cuttings in mist chamber.
Roses are planted in pits filled with well rotten fym and top soil in the months of June to Aug –Sep.. Require full sunlight throughout the day. Red Loamy soils with pH of 5.5 – 6 is ideal.
In the first year after planting light pruning is to be done. In the subsequent years the plants are pruned once a year in the month of June or October to coincide flowering with the festive season or Christmas / New Year’s day. The plants are pruned to 30 - 40cm ht from the ground level with 4-5 canes on each plant. Blitox paste to be applied to the cut surface immediately after pruning.
- The important cultivars are Piton, Pink elegance, Savannah, Goliath, Dalma etc. - The tissue culture planting material is available with Kumar Biotech , Pune.
You can plant at a spacing of 2 X 1.5 m for Jasminum graniflorum, 1.5x1.5m for Jasminum sambac and Jasminum auriculatum and 1.2x1.2m in Jasminum multiflorum. Pit size is 45x45x45 cm. Yield of flowers vary according to the species and management practices. Average yield is 7-8 tonnes/ha.
Terminal stem cuttings with one or two healthy aerial roots are ideal as planting material of monopodial orchids. Basal cuttings of 30 cm length with a few roots and leaves are also good. Sympodial orchids are propagated by separation of pseudobulbs. A plant with minimum two or three pseudobulbs with the basal root is ideal for planting. Some of the sympodial varieties produce sprouts at the top of pseudobulb which when fully-grown can be separated and planted. Tissue culture plants are however used for commercial production.
Some of the commercially important dendrobium varities are Sonia, White daisy, Copper queen, Thanachi gold, Thoshika inabu
The following are different weed control methods in practice:
Mechanical – use of land drawn, bullock drawn and tractor drawn implements
Cultural – sowing of different crops in rotation to check the crop specific weed species
Solarization – use of black polythene mulches
Biological – use of certain fungal pathogens that specifically kill certain weed species
Allelopathy – use of allelopathic cover crops, crop wastes as mulches check weed growth through release of allelochemicals that affect weed seed germination and growth
Chemical – use of pre and post emergent herbicides or weedicides to check weed growth
Weeds affect crop productivity : a) directly and b) indirectly.
- Direct effects of weeds: Weeds affects crop growth directly by competing for resources like water, nature, space and light.
- Indirect effects of weeds : Weeds act as alternate hosts for a number of pests and diseases that infect the crops
There are two types of weedicides: a) Pre-emergent and b) Post emergent a) Pre-emergent weedicides : There are chemicals that have to be sprayed on wet soils after crop seed is sown/transplanted, at recommended doses for a particular crop. The pre-emergence nature is with respect to the weed seed germination. Pre-emergent herbicides are effective against most dicot weeds, while they are in effective against vegetatively propagated weeds like Cyperus and Cynodon. These can be used in annual and biennial crops. b) Post emergent weedicides: Post emergent herbicides are broad-spectrum and contact in nature. For post-emergent weedicide to be effect the weed species should be at least 2-4” in height, as it is sprayed directly on the weeds. These can be used for orchard floor management.
Following are the most common pre-emergent herbicides used in horticultural crops.
Common name Trade name
a) Lasso Alachlor
b) Butachlo Machete
c) Basalin Flucloralin
d) Goal Oxyfluorfen
Middle node fruits can be used for the quality seeds in okra.
A light intensity of 800-950 µ mol m251 is found ideal for the better growth and higher yield of plants during summer cultivation.
Since bell pepper is sink regulated crop, the pinching of the lower node flower enhances the quality of fruit yield.