Soil application of neem and pongamia cakes @500 kg/ha at planting and repeated 3 more times at 30-45 days interval followed by neem soap or Pulverised neem seed extract 4% spray was found to reduce the borer damage to about 10% during August-February months. However, the cake applications were not effective during summer months and early monsoon period before August. This is perhaps due to high temperature and high wind velocity which cause rapid loss of the volatiles in cakes. The quality of cakes is also another limiting factor. Mixing 2 ml endosulfan with 2 ml pongamia oil and 1ml sticker, then emulsifying with water and making it to 1 litre and spraying is also found moderately effective in reducing fruit borer.
The tropical Cv. Asiatic varieties of winter vegetables of carrot, radish, etc. can produce seeds in the plains. But the temperate or European varieties of these crops can produce seeds only in the hills.
Fig fruits can be preserved by dehydration after suitable pre-treatments.
Maintaining genetic purity of seeds is very important to produce true to type seeds. The genetic purity can be improved by following proper isolation distance recommended for the variety, by avoiding cross compatible crops in melons, pumpkins, chillies by properly providing isolation distance and also by roguing offtypes before flowering.
Mainly two types are there.
- RTS – Ready to serve type which need not be further changed in composition while serving.
- Concentrates: Which needs to be changed in composition while serving by diluting with water.
20 trees out of 100 trees (20 percent) should to be sampled to get better estimate in mango.
They are preserved mainly by the application of heat. Hence, no chemical preservatives are added in these products.
Soil application of neem cake at the time of transplanting (@ 500 Kg/ha) followed by 1 or 2 applicationS at 30 and 60 DAT is found useful in managing this insect. However, mechanical collection and destruction of adult beetles prior to flowering may be followed to prevent them from egg laying.
They are mainly preserved by the use of chemical preservatives such as potassium metabisulphite or sodium benzoate.
No Potassium metabisulphite (KMS) should not be used in products like tomato and coloured grape products since sulphur dioxide released from KMS bleaches the colouring pigment lycopene (tomatoes) and anthrocyanins (grapes).
The physical purity of the seeds like appearance, proper size, cleanliness, freedom from pests can be improved by growing seed crop in proper season, by following proper rotation by effective cultivation practices, like weeding, irrigation, fertilizer management, plant protection, etc. Besides the seeds have to be cleaned and graded by passing the seeds through pre-cleaners, graders and specific gravity separators.
Grapes can be processed into wine, juice and raisin.
Fortnightly sprays of cypermethrin or deltamethrin or endosulfan or carbaryl are effective. Soil application of neem cake @ 500 kg/ha immediately after germination and repeated 2 more times at 30 days interval brings down the borer to around 5% or lower, particularly during cooler parts of the year.
Both RTS and squash/concentrate type products can be prepared.
8 trees should to be sampled to get better estimate in guava.